What is Veto Power?
United Nations Security Council has permanent 5 members. These are Russia, China, France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. These are generally known as P5. They all have Right to Veto. Only the permanent member or P5 has the right to Veto. On the other hand, non-permanent or temporary members are also added which rotate every 2 years.
Many other members have also used their Veto power in the past. But, in the context of India, we are more concerned about China’s Veto power. Everybody knows what happened on 14th February 2019 (Pulwama Attack). Mashood Azhar is the terrorist who is the chief of militant group Jaish-E-Mohammad is responsible behind this cowardly act. He has done this kind of damage several times in the past also.
India desperately wants to declare Mashood Azhar as a global terrorist in United Nations. But, every time there is a proposal China use its Veto power to reject that. Even if other nations stand with that proposal but the power of Veto is like that even if single P5 member rejects the proposal it cannot be passed. This time China has used its Veto power 4th time.
How China got this Veto power?
In the latest conflict between BJP (Bhartiya Janata Party) and Congress, Arun Jaitley tweets “the excerpts from Nehru’s 1955 letter for UNSC seat”. In the letter, it was mentioned as a quote by Jawaharlal Nehru. That “Informally suggestions have been made by the United States that China should be taken into the United Nations but not in the Security Council, and India should take her place in the Security Council. We cannot, of course, accept this as it means falling out with China and it would be very unfair for a great country like China not to be in the Security Council”.
So whether you accept it or not but through these words anyone can analyze that it was the mistake of Jawaharlal Nehru due to which China was able to become the permanent member of Security Council and India did not. The original mistake both for Kashmir Article 370 and China’s Veto power was made by the same person Jawaharlal Nehru.
What is the solution for Veto Power?
Now the question arises for this Veto Power. Because a monopoly cannot happen over this issue. So what is the solution to this problem? Rather than declining the Veto power expand it to other nations than P5. India, Brazil, Germany, and Japan have already formed a group known as G-4. These G-4 nations are among the popular contenders for the permanent membership status in the council if the expansion happened.
It would take a whole lot of support to modify the UN charter and to get all P5 members to agree at the same time to restrict their own power. Right now there is no proof that modification will happen in the UN. If it happens then it is expected by the various reactions of some permanent members like France and the United Kingdom that they are more open to expansion. But China, Russia, and the USA have been more cautious or we can say directly opposed.